SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES ON NIACIN, VITAMIN B3, NAD, etc.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme that is found in all kinds of living cells, ranging from bacteria to man. Present both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. This special molecule plays an important role in the biochemical pathways that converts nutrients into energy within the mitochondria. Additionally, NAD protects tissues from free radicals (skin barrier integrity), supports innate immune function, boosts DNA repair, increases energy, and extends life span.
The human body manufactures NAD from vitamin B3 (niacin, niacinamide) delivered in our diet, but the majority of the NAD in the body (total quantity of about 3 grams in the average person) is in a constant state of synthesis, degradation, and recycling.
NAD+ in COVID-19 and viral infections
NAD+ metabolism: pathophysiologic mechanisms and therapeutic potential
Therapeutic Potential of NAD-Boosting Molecules: The In Vivo Evidence
NAD in Skin: Therapeutic Approaches for Niacin
Absorption of some organic compounds through the skin in man
Potential Role of Oral Rinses Targeting the Viral Lipid Envelope in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Understanding the immune response in COVID-19 – new opportunities and new insights
Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 induced pneumonia with NAD+ in a mouse model
COVID-19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses
The Malnutritional Status of the Host as a Virulence Factor for New Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
Why does COVID-19 disproportionately affect older people?
COVID-19: NAD+ deficiency may predispose the aged, obese and type 2 diabetics to mortality through its effect on SIRT1 activity
Influence of NAD+ as an ageing-related immunomodulator on COVID19 infection: A hypothesis
Be well: A potential role for vitamin B in COVID-19
DISCLAIMER: There are still no completed clinical trials confirming that the replenishment of the coenzyme NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) by any method treats, cures, or prevents any disease, including COVID-19. The human evidence only shows that NAD precursors – B3 vitamins, like Niacin or Niacinamide or Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) or Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) – are safe and effective at replenishing NAD. The effect of that replenishment in humans remains unproven. It is only in animal studies that we consistently see NAD replenishment having a positive effect on physical conditions involving NAD depletion.